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Caldwell University’s Research and Creative Arts Day

On Wednesday, April 26, 2017, the Caldwell University highlighted undergraduate and graduate student research and promoting STEAM, which stands for science, technology, engineering, arts and math. The Business Division was proud to have five undergraduate students, either majoring or minoring in Business, represented at this event.

Gabriella Armaral, Comparative Statistical Analysis of the Endangerment of the Bald Eagle


The science of statistics extends its reach into varying areas of our lives, such as; agriculture, business, economics, medicine, pharmaceutics, environment, wildlife, and the government. Statistics is the science of planning, obtaining, summarizing, and interpreting data, then subsequently drawing well founded conclusions on said data.” Relatively few people study both the general mathematical approach to statistics as well as the business approach to statistics. The two methods of studying statistics can be analyzed by comparing and contrasting them and then applying them to a real world situation. This project will attempt to further conclusions about the base of knowledge in statistical applications to see whether one approach, the other, or a combination of the two is most efficient.

A real world situation that direly depends on statistics is the study of endangered species. This paper will focus on the endangerment of the bald eagle. Whenever statistical research is conducted for scientific application, typically the mathematical approach is used. This process can be longer, more tedious and involved, as well as more complex than the business approach. This paper will attempt to validate the overlying hypothesis that a combination of the two approaches is the most efficient and effective way to obtain the best possible statistical data. Using the principles and accuracy of the mathematical approach, in addition to the convenience, organization, straightforward and comprehensible visualizations of the business approach, will lead to the clearest possible results and conclusions. This is the ideal way to handle real world situations and in the case of the bald eagle, would most likely uncover underlying issues that are causing the fluctuation of their appearance on and off the endangered species list.

SIEUWERD Blankenstein, Financial Regression Analysis of the Performance of English Premier League Teams and Their Financial Expenditures

This paper examines the financial expenditures of European football, specifically, the English Premier League (EPL) teams during the 2014-2015 season, and their relationship with team performance measured in points during the same season. Points are accumulated as follows: 3 for a win, 1 for a tie, and 0 for a loss. European football is the most popular spectator sport played worldwide, and it is currently one of the fastest growing sports in the United States. European football should not be mistaken with the American equivalent, known as American football. Football in Europe is what soccer is in the United States, a sport played by two teams of eleven players, where each team attempts to put the ball in the opponent’s goal by using any body part except arms and hands. European football has become a commercial giant, with the most competitive league being the English Premier League. The EPL consists of twenty teams every season, although the teams can and do change, depending on their performance. Each year three teams are promoted and three teams are relegated based on performance. According to a Deloitte analysis, the projected annual revenue for the 2016-2017 season for the combined twenty Premier League teams is £4.32 Billion (Deloitte’s Annual Review of Football Finance 2016). This revenue number indicates the enormous impact of finances on the EPL. Additionally, the EPL is known for the clubs’ extreme spending on wages. For example, during the 2014-2015 season, the average wages/revenue ratio was 61 percent, but certain teams were far above the average with ratios of up to 85 percent (Deloitte’s Annual Review of Football Finance 2016).

Aidan Groll, Cost Benefit Analysis of Legalizing Marijuana in New Jersey

Marijuana is the most commonly-used illegal substance in the United States. The debate over whether marijuana should be legalized has long troubled many American citizens and our politicians. To better understand the roots of the debate, it is imperative to analyze the history and use of the drug, as well as the implications of its prospective legalization. This paper explores such topics and more specifically determines if the State of New Jersey should adopt legislation that legalizes the drug. Fortunately, the research on this topic is informed by the actions of citizens and politicians in the states of Washington and Colorado, which have passed legislation legalizing marijuana and have produced research on the impact it has had in their respective states. Utilizing this research and supplementary studies, a cost-benefit analysis will be constructed on the impact the legalization of marijuana could have on the state of New Jersey. The focus of the analysis will be economic, legal, and social. Based upon the findings, a recommendation will be made on what course of action New Jersey should take.

Kathryn Reilly, Cryptography: Is This Ancient Practice Keeping Society Safe?

Society has come to rely on a series of technological formats to fit everyday needs. Each day people check pockets or purses for cell phones, car keys, and wallets that are filled with credit and debit cards, all coded to work and keep information from being hacked. Cell phones have finger print readers so that only the owner can access them. Debit cards now have security chips, making them harder to steal private information from. Businesses often operate using the internet which causes a need to encrypt confidential professional data to protect privacy.

The coding of technology stems from an ancient practice of cryptography, the art of writing and solving codes. Cryptography has existed for thousands of years. It can be traced to Ancient Egypt, the Roman Empire, and Elizabethan England. It was used during the American Revolution with the hanging lanterns to convey if the British were coming by land or by sea. The practice of encoding and decoding messages had a drastic defining moment during World War Two with the Enigma Code. That moment marked the integration of coding to protect secrets into modern technology.

Society is now facing an unexpected problem with the technology it created; 64% of Americans have experienced a major data breach. Almost every major company has an intranet and a share drive where all employee records and documents are kept from public eyes. Recently the act of cryptography has come under public scrutiny because of the United States Privacy Act. Consumers are conflicted in their view of government regulation: they simultaneously expect privacy while seeking government protection from data misuse. Yet, at the same time citizens expect the government’s assurance of safety by allowing the government to intrude on the privacy of others. The government needs to crack codes to gain access to information while protecting its own information from being hacked by others.

Randall Stafford, The Portrayal of Female Athletes in the Media

Female athletes have become great influencers to a new generation of young women in the United States. Thanks to the Title IX generation of athletes, young girls had an array of role models from whom they could learn that participating in sports was socially acceptable. Female athletes were able to enjoy the same benefits derived from sports that men have experienced throughout history. Benefits such as discipline, confidence, leadership skills, and independence.

Despite this progress in societal values, a stigma surrounding female athletes and their image still persists in the media and amongst athletic programs across the country. The representation of female athletes in mass media, or lack thereof, perpetuates the negative cultural view of women in sports. Minimal exposure of female athletes to viewers allows society to continue to believe that sports are made for men only. The sexualization of female athletes in the media allows society to maintain the traditional view of a female –that they are feminine and weak. Based on numerous studies on sport media companies’, such as Sports Illustrated and ESPN, the data has revealed that most coverage of female athletes represents their femininity and contains sexist language. Mass media’s impact on society’s culture plays a major role in creating the image of female athletes. Now, the media must take the lead in these changing times and cover women for their talents, achievements, and success, in other words, the same way they cover men. Only then can we see some real change and equality for women. Over the past 50 years society has made dramatic changes for women, more opportunities in the workforce, in education, and in politics. Now the time has come for the sports industry and the sports media to catch up and give female athletes the respect they deserve.