Caldwell University Editorial Style Guide
The Caldwell University editorial style guide is intended to guide campus staff and faculty in writing for nonacademic communications internally and externally including print, website, press releases, magazine, and electronic and print newsletters.
The Caldwell University News and Media Relations Office uses Associated Press (AP) style, which is a standard for news writing, is usually used by the press to which we send releases and other materials, and aims to make content easy to read. Journalists use AP style, which means our stories are ready-made for press visibility. We also use the Merriam-Webster Dictionary and the CNS (Catholic News Service) Stylebook.
For some entries, Caldwell University’s style will override AP style. We understand that some offices may choose to use another style. These entries are not edicts but are meant to be a guide for consistency. We suggest that you consult this guide for areas specific to Caldwell University. Style rules change, and so we also suggest that you consult each guide’s latest recommendations.
abbreviations and acronyms Use only universally accepted abbreviations and acronyms, and use them sparingly,being mindful that not all readers and audience members will be familiar with them. Consult Merriam-Webster and the Associated Press (AP) Stylebook for standard abbreviations. When an abbreviation or acronym can be used with or without periods, use it without.
On first reference, use the full, formal name and place the abbreviation or acronym in parentheses after the name only if you will be using the abbreviation or acronym later. Do not italicize the shortened form. Well-known abbreviations such as FBI, CIA, GPA or YMCA can be used on first reference.
Examples of abbreviations often used in university publications:
Applied Behavior Analysis (ABA)
Council for Accreditation and Counseling and Related Educational Programs (CACREP)
National Survey of Student Engagement (NSSE)
academic colleges, departments and schools See https://www.caldwell.edu/academics/academic-departments for information on academic programs, majors, colleges and departments. Colleges, departments and schools are as follows:
College of Arts and Humanities
Department of English
Department of History and Political Science
Department of Modern Languages
Department of Music
Department of Theology and Philosophy
Department of Visual Art and Design
College of Professional Studies
Department of Communication and Media Studies
School of Business and Computer Science
School of Education
College of Natural, Behavioral and Health Sciences
School of Natural Sciences
School of Nursing and Public Health
School of Psychology and Counseling
Department of Mathematics
Department of Applied Behavior Analysis
Department of Sociology and Criminal Justice
academic degrees Capitalize the formal name of a degree: Bachelor of Science in Business Administration, Bachelor of Arts in Communication and Media Studies. Lowercase informal and less precise names:bachelor’s in business administration, bachelor’s degree in history, bachelor’s in communication and media studies.
Capitalize the academic discipline if it is a language: bachelor’s degree in French, bachelor’s degree in Spanish, master’s degree in English.
When abbreviating a degree after a person’s name, use periods with no spaces between the letters (B.A., M.A., M.B.A., Ed.D., Ph.D.).Offset the degree with commas: Marie Mullaney, Ph.D., professor of history, attended the conference.
academic degrees and titles for faculty The academic degrees and titles for Caldwell University faculty can be found in their department pages on the website. If the information is not available, you may contact the college, school or department.
accept/except To accept is to receive something offered; “except” means “with the exclusion or exception of” (Merriam-Webster)
acronyms See abbreviations and acronyms.
Addresses Spell out the state in a running text: Marie grew up in South Bend, Indiana. Abbreviate in datelines.
Caldwell University’s official address is 120 Bloomfield Ave., Caldwell, New Jersey 07006
African American No hyphen.
afterward Not afterwards.
Ages Always use figures. Use hyphens for ages appearing as adjectives before a noun or as substitutes for a noun:The class is for 5-year-olds. The 27-year-old student is a resident of Caldwell. The student is in his 40s. (No apostrophe.)
aid/aide The verb “aid”means to provide help; the noun “aid” is the help provided:He is eligible for financial aid. An aide is a person who acts as an assistant: She is working as an aide in the elementary school.
All-America, All-American The team member is an All-American; the team is All-America. The award is an All-America honor.
alma mater The school, college or university a person attended:Caldwell University is my alma mater. Do not italicize or capitalize.
Alumni Association Board Capitalize when referring to the Caldwell University governing board. Elaine Bauer Zabriskie is president of the Caldwell University Alumni Association Board. She has been on the board for many years.
alumna, alumnae, alumnus, alumni Alumna is the feminine singular.Alumnae is the feminine plural.Alumnus is the masculine singular.Alumni is the masculine or mixed-gender plural.
Do not capitalize “alumni”after Caldwell University: Several Caldwell University alumni came out for Homecoming and Family Weekend.
alumni identification Identify alumni who appear in external university publications by the formats described and illustrated below.
Undergraduate and graduate years should not be followed by a comma:
The chapel was made possible by a gift from alumna Elaine Tweedus ‘66 and her late husband, Ed Lonyai.
Use only the last two digits of the undergraduate or graduate year.
For those with a graduate degree, place a comma after the last name, followed by the abbreviation for the degree, a space, an apostrophe and the year the degree was attained:
Joe Smith, M.A. ’13
Undergraduate and graduate years should be separated with a slash: Mary Smith ’14/M.A. ’18.
For alumni with three or more degrees, list degrees in chronological order separated by slashes: Mary Smith ’97/M.A. ’05/Ed.D. ’14.
Note the correct use of the apostrophe. Right: Elaine Bauer Zabriskie ’73. Wrong: Elaine Bauer Zabriskie ‘73.
Alumni who belong to religious orders should be referred to as follows: name, year of graduation, religious order (identified by initials separated by periods):Sister Barbara Krug ’64, Ph.D., O.P.
Observe these other forms:
Alumnae who have married and changed their last names: Suzanne (Remmele ’65) Peters.
Alumnus and non-alumna wife:Jeff ’08 and Pamela Egnatovich.
Alumna and non-alumnus husband: Erin (Moran ’04) and Anthony Marrone.
Married alumna and alumnus: Pamela and Jeff Egnatovich ’08.Jan Marco Jiras ’08/M.B.A. ’10 and Nicole (Laureigh ’10) Jiras or Nicole (Laureigh ’10) and Jan Marco Jiras ’08/M.B.A. ’10.
Alumnus or alumna using two last names: Mary Sellitto-Curcio ’83 earned a Bachelor of Arts in English.
In listings of names, order alphabetically by last name.
Alumni Theatre The proper name of the facility on Caldwell’s campus:The lecture is being held in the Alumni Theatre. In all other uses, make the spelling “theater”: The students are studying theater and production.
a.m., p.m. Not AM, PM.
Americans with Disabilities Act Write out on first reference. ADA is acceptable on second reference.
amount, number Use “amount” for things that can’t be counted; use “number” for things that can be counted: A huge amount of rain fell. A large number of students attended the concert.
Ampersand Acceptable in headlines; otherwise use the ampersand only when it is part of the formal name of a company or an organization.
annual Lowercase unless it is part of the official name of an event. Do not use the term “first annual.”
anymore, any more One word when the meaning is “no longer”: Alice doesn’t live here anymore. Two words when the meaning is “in addition to”: I don’t have any more to give.
Applied behavior analysis Not applied behavioral analysis. Example- The center at Caldwell University uses applied behavior analysis to treat children with autism spectrum disorder.
archbishop Capitalize before a proper name or immediately after first reference; lowercase standing alone. On first reference: Most Reverend Gregory Wilton, Archbishop of Washington.The above is an exception to AP style and to other general rules.
On subsequent references: Archbishop Wilton. He is the seventh archbishop of Washington, D.C. The homily given by the archbishop was excellent.
associate degree Not associate’s degree.
Athletic conferences Use Roman numerals: Division I, Division II, Division III.
Use NCAA on first reference as the abbreviation for National Collegiate Athletic Association is widely known.
Autism spectrum disorder The single word “autism” is now outdated; instead, the full term “autism spectrum disorder” should be used. Do not say one “has autism” or “is autistic” but rather say “is diagnosed with an autism spectrum disorder.” Example – The child has been diagnosed with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). On the first reference use autism spectrum disorder. On the second and subsequent references use ASD.
Bachelor of Arts/Bachelor of Science or B.A./B.S. See academic degrees.
baccalaureate Do not capitalize.
bachelor’s degree Use an apostrophe.
Backward Not backward.
baptism See sacraments.
Bible Capitalize when referring to the Scriptures, the Old and New Testaments: He reads the Bible every day. Lowercase when the word is not a religious term: The Associated Press Stylebook is her bible.
Benediction Capitalize when referring to the Catholic religious service of prayers and hymns, often accompanied by exposition of the Eucharist (eucharistic adoration). The service might also be called Benediction of the Blessed Sacrament.
bishop Capitalize when used as the title before the name. Lower case in other instances: Bishop Manuel A. Cruz gave an excellent homily.The Most Reverend Manuel A. Cruz, D.D., is an auxiliary bishop in the Archdiocese of Newark.
Board of Trustees Capitalize when referring to Caldwell University’s governing body. Lower case elsewhere: The Caldwell University Board of Trustees accepted the proposal.The board will meet on July 25.
book titles See titles of works.
buildings This is a list of the names and spellings of Caldwell University buildings.
cabinet Lowercase when referring to the Caldwell University cabinet.
cancel, canceled, canceling, cancellation
capital Lowercase the term for the seat of government: Trenton is the capital of New Jersey. “Capital” also means wealth, such as money or property. The term can also refer to special eminence: New York City is the theater capital of the world.
capitol The building for the seat of government. Capitalize in this usage: Congressional leadership holds its meetings in the Capitol building in Washington, D.C.
captions/cutlines See photography identifiers.
cardinal Capitalize when the word appears before a name. Otherwise, lowercase: Cardinal Joseph Tobin visited Caldwell’s campus Tuesday.The cardinal met with students after Mass.
Catholic terms and deity pronouns
Body and Blood of Christ
He, Him, His: Capitalize when referring to the three persons of the Trinity. This is an exception to AP and CNS style.
Holy Communion:Capitalize “Holy” only when the term refers to the full church service. Capitalize “Communion,” but make it “first Communion.”
Holy See: Capitalize the term for the pope and his curia of congregations, tribunals and offices in their role as the chief diocese of Catholicism.
Liturgy of the Word
Liturgy of the Eucharist (or Eucharistic Liturgy)
Pope Francis: Capitalize the title when it appears before the pope’s name. Otherwise,make it lowercase: The pope is from Argentina.
century Lowercase in all uses; spell out the first through ninth centuries; use numerals thereafter: the 21st century, the third-century church.
CEO, CFO, CIO Write out the full title on first reference: chief executive officer, chief financial officer, chief information officer. On subsequent references you may use the acronym.
cities and towns Place a comma between city and state. Spell out the state name in text. It is not necessary to note the state for large cities such as Boston, Chicago, Los Angeles and New York.
Use New York City and Washington, D.C., when you need to be specific or to avoid confusion with New York state and Washington state, respectively.
Andrei St. Felix took a group of students to Boston. Joe grew up in Cape Girardeau, Missouri.
Class of The plaque was donated by the Class of 1989.
colleges and universities – Check the websites of other institutions for their formal names. Uppercase “University” when the word is referring to Caldwell and stands alone. Example – Caldwell University has been recognized as a College of Distinction. The University holds an annual day of service called Caldwell Service Day. The University is offering a new online master’s in nursing.
commencement, Commencement Ceremony, Commencement Weekend The university’s 76th Commencement Ceremony will be held on May 18. Commencement Weekend takes place May 17-18.There are limited tickets for commencement.
committee Do not abbreviate. Capitalize with the formal name of a committee:the Strategic Planning Committee.
conference titles Capitalize titles; don’t use quotation marks or italics:Mary Ann B. Miller, professor of English, presented at the Columbia University Seminar on Catholicism, Culture, and Modernity.
Concelebrant Not con-celebrant.
Confirmation See sacraments.
convocation Capitalize when referring a specific ceremony. Otherwise, lowercase: The awards will be presented at the Honors Convocation ceremony scheduled for April 23. He spoke at the convocation ceremony.
coronavirus Use with the article “the” – i.e. the coronavirus pandemic hit North Jersey hard in March.
Cougars Capitalize the name of Caldwell’s athletics teams:The Cougars had an outstanding season as they captured the East Coast Conference Championship for the first time in program history.
country names In general, do not abbreviate names of countries. U.S. is acceptable on second reference.
course titles Capitalize the proper name of a course; do not use italics or quotation marks: John signed up for CH 111 General Chemistry.We had a great discussion in Monday’s Catholic Medical Ethics class.
Lowercase informal, less specific references: He passed his mathematics class but failed his art class.
courtesy titles In general use first and last names on first reference and last names only on subsequent references. Do not use courtesy titles such as Mr., Mrs.and Ms. except when they are in direct quotations or if there is a special circumstance.
For sisters and other religious, we break at times with AP style and don’t use last names on second reference: Sister Kathleen Tuite, vice president for student life, is a lifelong Mets fan. Sister Kathleen hopes her team takes the World Series.
To distinguish between two people who use the same last name, such as married couples or brothers and sisters, use the full names if the two people are mentioned in the same sentence: Dr. Kenneth Reeve and Dr. Sharon Reeve are faculty members in the Department of Applied Behavior Analysis.
COVID-19 – stands for coronavirus disease 2019
cum laude, magna cum laude, summa cum laudeNo italics.
dates Use this order to describe when an event has happened or will take place: time, day, date. The concert will take place 4 p.m., Wednesday, Feb.16. Use only the number. Wrong: Feb. 16th.
When a phrase includes only a month and a year, do not separate them with a comma:The snow fell in January 2019.When the phrase includes a month, a day and a year, set apart with commas: She was born on Feb. 12, 1937.
Spell out the names of the days, and spell out months when they stand alone.When the months of January, February, August, September, October, November and December appear with a specific date, use these abbreviations: Jan., Feb., Aug., Sept., Oct., Nov. and Dec. Spell out all other months.
For multiple years, consolidate: 2014-16, not 2014-2016.
daylong, weeklong, monthlong, yearlong No hyphen.
decades Do not form the plural with an apostrophe. He went to high school in the late ’70s. She likes the music of the 1950s best.
degrees See academic degrees.
departments See academic colleges, departments and schools and the university website for the names of Caldwell’s colleges, departments and schools. Capitalize the formal names: College of Arts and Humanities, School of Business and Computer Science, Department of Music.
Do not capitalize informal references to offices and departments: She walked over to the development office. She went to pick up paperwork from human resources.
diocese Capitalize only the formal name of the diocese: He works for the Diocese of Paterson. He works for the diocese.
doctoral degree/doctorate Not a doctor’s degree or doctorate degree.
dormitory/dorm Both are acceptable but residence hall is preferred.
Easter, Easter season
Easter triduum Also called the sacred triduum, these are the three days beginning on Holy Thursday with the Lord’s Supper, continuing with Good Friday and ending with evening prayer on Easter. On second reference, “triduum” is acceptable.
Easter Week The week following Easter through the Sunday after Easter.
Educational Opportunity Fund Program Use the full name on first reference. EOF is acceptable on second reference.
email No hyphen, as per AP style.
emeritus, emerita, emeriti These are honorary titles bestowed on some retired faculty members and board members.
Use “emeritus” for a man: Mark Smith is trustee emeritus for the board. Use “emerita” for a woman: Lauren Pristas, Ph.D., is professor emerita of theology.
The female plural is “emeritae”: Sister Barbara Krug and Sister Barbara Moore are trustees emeritae from the Theology and Philosophy Department.
Use “emeriti”for the male plural or for a mixed-gender group.
entitled, titled You are entitled to your opinion. The book is titled “War and Peace.”
esports– Lower case, no hyphen: Caldwell is starting a new esports management program.Capitalize only in the formal name of an organization.
events Capitalize the formal name of an event: The annual Caldwell Day took place Friday, Sept. 26.The Veritas Awards Dinner is scheduled for Friday, March 26.
every day/everyday “Every day” is a phrase meaning “each day.” “Everyday” is an adjective: We experience everyday life every day.
faculty “Faculty” is singular: The faculty is meeting this week. Use “faculty members” for the plural:Faculty members are meeting to discuss the plans.
fall semester, spring semester
farther/further “Farther” means at or to a greater distance or more advanced point;“further”means to a greater degree or extent: We will walk a few miles farther. I will look further into the question.
Father Use “Father” in all references to Catholic priests: Father Bob Stagg was the celebrant for the Mass. Do not abbreviate (Fr.).This is an exception to AP style.
feast of Do not capitalize: We are celebrating the feast of St. Dominic on Thursday, Aug. 8. The Mass for the feast of the Immaculate Conception will be held in the Mother Mary Dominic Tweedus Chapel.
freshman/freshmen A freshman is a first–year student; “freshmen” is the plural form.
“Freshman” is also used as an adjective: She is the freshman class advisor. Note that the adjective is “freshman,” not “freshmen.”
fiscal year Make it fiscal year 2020 on first reference and fiscal 2020 on subsequent references.
full time/full-time Hyphenate only before a noun: She works here full time.He has a full-time position in the Human Resources Department.
fundraising/fundraiser No hyphen. She excels at fundraising. They held a fundraiser last Saturday.
God Capitalize “God” or words that reference God, the divine being of all monotheistic religions. Capitalize God the Father, God the Son, Holy Spirit, Holy Ghost, Our Lord, Jehovah, Yahweh, Elohim and Allah. See Catholic terms and deity pronouns. Lowercase “god” and “goddess,” terms used in polytheistic religions and in cultural mythologies.
Good Friday This is the day Christians observe the crucifixion of Jesus Christ. It is the Friday before Easter Sunday. It is not part of Lent.
Gospel Capitalize when referring to the books of the New Testament: This Sunday’s Gospel is about the Good Samaritan.
Governor Abbreviate with the full name, spell out with only the last name, and lowercase standing alone: Gov. Phil Murphy surveyed the storm damage today. Let’s welcome Governor Murphy to the event. The governor is running for a second term.
governing boards Capitalize the full names of governing boards at Caldwell University: Board of Trustees, Alumni Association Board. Otherwise, lowercase: The board approved the proposal. The alumni board is welcoming new members.
GPA Grade point average. GPA is acceptable in all references.
groundbreaking No hyphen.
Hail Mary, Hail Marys
headlines Capitalize the first letter of all words except for prepositions and conjunctions.
health care AP and Merriam-Webster call for two words: Health care workers help patients with injury and disease. They discussed health care policy issues.
In titling its academic program, the university differs: Caldwell offers a Bachelor of Science in Healthcare Administration.The university is offering a bachelor’s degree in healthcare administration.
Holy Communion See sacraments.
internet Do not capitalize. An exception is Voice over Internet Protocol, which is inexpensive sound transmission. VoIP is acceptable.
Jersey Shore Capitalizeas a geographic location.
Jr. Do not set off with a comma.
K-12 Kindergarten through 12th grade.
Kickoff is the noun, kickoff is the verb and kick-off is the adjective.
literally Avoid using.
long term/long-term Hyphenate only before a noun: She signed a long-term contract. We are planning for the long term.
majors and minors Lowercase academic majors and minors except for proper nouns: He is a business administration major. She is an English major.
Mass The priest says or celebrates Mass. Capitalize when referring to the rite but lowercase the preceding adjectives: The funeral Mass was held in the chapel.
master’s/master’s degree Use an apostrophe. See academic degrees.
millions/billions Use figures in all except casual uses: 12 million people, $9 million, a billion dollars. Do not use a hyphen to join a figure and the word “million,”“billion” or “trillion.”
Do not go beyond two decimal places: 9.52 million people, $765 million.
Mount St. Dominic Academy
NCAA National Collegiate Athletic Association.
number, amount See amount, number.
numbers/numerals In general spell out zero through nine and use numerals for 10 and up. For ages, see ages.
Use figures for academic course numbers: English 101.
Use figures for grades 10 and above:12thgrade. Spell out first through ninth grades: second grade,first–grader.
online One word in all references when it means connected through the computer.
O.P., O.P.A. – refers to the Order of Preachers
orient, oriented. Not orientate, orientated.Right: Seniors helped orient the incoming freshmen.
page Capitalize when referring to a specific page, and use figures:The story is on Page 1.
percent or %? AP is now using %: The university is reporting a 40% increase in enrollment this year.
preventive Not preventative.
religious titles Spell out titles like Sister, Brother, Father, Cardinal and Monsignor when they appear before a name.
room numbers Capitalize “room” when it is accompanied by a number:The meeting will be held in Werner Hall, Room 202.
Rosary Capitalize whenreferring to the prayer: We will pray the Rosary tonight. Lowercase when referring to the beads: He brought his rosary to the chapel.
RSVP No periods.
sacraments Catholics have seven sacraments. Capitalize only Communion or the Eucharist.
Sapientia et Scientia This means “Wisdom and Knowledge.” It is the motto of Caldwell University, derived from the invocation of the Litany of the Sacred Heart of Jesus. The Sisters of St. Dominic of Caldwell, founders of Caldwell University, belong to the Congregation of the Sacred Heart.
Sister Use “Sister”in all references: Sister Marie Rafferty taught the course. On second reference, use the first name: Sister Marie. Do not abbreviate (Sr.). Avoid the word “nun” unless you are referring to cloistered sisters.
Sister Mary Dominic Tweedus Chapel The new chapel located on the first floor of the Newman Center.
Sr. – for senior – Do not set off with a comma.
State House Uppercase only with the state name: She has a meeting at the New Jersey State Housein Trenton. He walked over to the state house.
study abroad/study-abroad Use the hyphen for the compound modifier: Caldwell offers several study-abroad programs. He is going to study abroad.
telephone numbers Caldwell University’s main number is 973-618-3000. For international numbers use 011 (from the United States), the country code, the city code, and the telephone number: Examples. Use hyphens, not periods.The form for toll-free numbers: 800-111-1000.
that, who Use “that” for groups, organizations, and inanimate objects; se “who” for people: the corporations that sell books; the people who love ice cream.
time of day Use figures (without “00”) for all except midnight and noon: The concert begins at 6 p.m. The Mass begins at noon. The class starts at 3 p.m.
Use a.m. and p.m., not AM and PM; use noon, not 12 p.m. or 12 noon, and midnight, not 12 a.m.; 6–10 a.m., not 6 a.m.–10 a.m.
titled, entitled See entitled, titled.
titles Capitalize before the name; lowercase after the name. Lowercase prior when the title is set off from the name: Vice President for Development and Alumni Affairs Kevin Boyle spoke to the alumni. Kevin Boyle, vice president for development and alumni affairs, spoke to the crowd. The vice president of development and alumni affairs, Kevin Boyle, spoke to the crowd.
Exception: President and religious: President Matthew Whelan spoke to the alumni. Matthew Whelan, President of Caldwell University, spoke to the alumni.
titles of works Place in quotes, not in italics: They watched “The Sound of Music “several times.
toward, not towards
trans-Atlantic, not transatlantic. Don’t lower-case proper nouns.
trustee Capitalize when the title appears before the name: The Caldwell University Board of Trustees said Trustee Mary Smith will make a recommendation at the meeting. Lowercase after the name: Mary Smith, a trustee, will write the letter.
University Use Caldwell University or Caldwell on the first reference. Capitalize “University” standing alone: The University is celebrating its 80th anniversary. Caldwell University is celebrating its 80th anniversary. Lowercase university only when used generically: She graduated from a well-known university.
Veterans Day No apostrophe.
vice president No hyphen. Capitalize the title prior to but not after the name: Vice President of Development and Alumni Affairs Kevin Boyle said the event was very successful. Kevin Boyle, vice president for development and alumni affairs, said the golf outing will be held next week.
web, web page, website
Be sure and check your copy for accuracy and fact check everything.
Keep your written materials up to date.