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Information Literacy

According to the National Forum on Information Literacy, “Information Literacy is defined as the ability to know when there is a need for information, to be able to identify, locate, evaluate, and effectively use that information for the issue or problem at hand.”

ACRL, The Association of College and Research Libraries, has set the standards
which are used nationwide as a model for university and college information literacy programs.

Characteristics of Programs of Information Literacy that Illustrate Best Practices: A Guideline

This tutorial, sponsored by the Western Michigan University Libraries, will prepare you to research in the online world. Login as a guest.



A list of works to which one has referred in preparing a paper.
It includes citations to all materials used.


CALdwell College’s Online CATalog
Here you will find what books, journals, and audiovisual materials are owned by Caldwell University’s Jennings Library.

Call Number

This is a number found on the spine of a book or other material which guides you to its location in the library. You find the call numbers in CALCAT. Jennings Library uses the Library of Congress Classification system which ranges from A-Z.

Ernest Hemingway’s The Sun Also Rises has the call number PS3515.E37 S86 1954


A quoting of an authoritative source for substantiation.

A citation gives credit to an author, title, publisher, date, etc.
One can cite a book, journal, chapter, website, etc.


Any electronically-stored collection of data arranged for ease of search and retrieval.
Subscription databases are accessed through a Library’s Website. They contain information that would not be free on the Internet.

Types of databases found in Jennings Library:

  • Periodical indexes, such as Academic Search Premier, Omni Full-Text, Proquest Research Library. These allow you to access the full text of some journal articles.
  • Informational databases, such as Discovering Collection, Conference Board, Grove Art Online, Grove Music Online, etc. This type of database is like using a reference book delivered to you electronically.


These abbreviations refer to styles of citing material as designated by certain associations.
MLA – Modern Language Association
APA – American Psychological Association


is a publication issued at regular intervals. It can be daily, weekly, monthly, annually, etc. The term periodical is often used interchangeably with journal or magazine in the library. The important difference lies in whether the item is popular or scholarly. Scholarly journals are often published by University presses or Professional Organizations; some may be peer-reviewed.

Scholarly Journal

A publication is considered to be scholarly or academic if it is authored by academics for a target audience that is mainly academic, and it is published by a recognized society with academic goals and missions. The printed format of a scholarly journal isn’t usually a glossy magazine.

A publication is considered to be peer reviewed or refereed if its articles go through an official editorial process that involves review and approval by the author’s peers,(people who are experts in the same subject area.) Most, but not all ,scholarly publications are peer reviewed. Many of the databases available through Jennings Library offer the option to limit a search to scholarly or peer reviewed publications or, to resort search results. If you are not sure if a journal is scholarly or refereed/peer reviewed, the Ulrich’s Periodical Directory is an easy place to check. To access the Ulrich Periodical Directory from the Library homepage, use the Databases link and select the Ulrich’s database from the alphabetical list. Simply enter the name of the journal and then look for the refereed icon to the left of the title on the results screen as well as the document type Academic/Scholarly in the full description. Ulrich’s Periodical Directory is also available in print format, located in the Library’s Reference Room.