The Bylaws of Caldwell College read:
The purpose for which the institution exists is to advance higher education within a Catholic framework and to confer degrees upon those who successfully complete the prescribed courses of study. This purpose is attained by instruction in the principles of philosophy and Catholic Theology, in instilling the high ideals of character and conduct, and by developing religious fervor, social skills, and intellectual abilities that characterize a cultural adult.
According to the vision upon which the college was founded, both theology and philosophy are essential to the education that Caldwell provides. The Department of Theology and Philosophy offers a Bachelor of Arts degree in theology, and minors in both theology and philosophy.